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In communication-and-resolution programs (CRPs), health systems and liability insurers encourage the disclosure of unanticipated care outcomes to affected patients and proactively seek resolutions, including offering an apology, an explanation, and, where appropriate, reimbursement or compensation. Anecdotal reports from the University of Michigan Health System and other early adopters of CRPs suggest that these programs can substantially reduce liability costs and improve patient safety. In this study, CRP participants were interviewed. They identified several factors that contributed to their programs’ success, including the presence of a strong institutional champion and investing in building and marketing the program to skeptical clinicians.


Mello, M. M., Boothman, R. C., McDonald, T., Driver, J., Lembitz, A., Bouwmeester, D., … Gallagher, T. (2014). Communication-and-resolution programs: the challenges and lessons learned from six early adopters. Health Affairs (Project Hope), 33(1), 20–29.