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Researchers acknowledged how a majority of adverse medical events involve patient harm. Patients and family are known as first victims. Researchers also acknowledged how healthcare professionals are also considered victims after an adverse event, due to the emotional and psychological trauma experienced after it. In other words, healthcare professionals are also known as second victims. In this study, researchers analyzed the various coping strategies that clinicians use in the wake of adverse events. These strategies include attending programs that offer emotional aid second victims, as well as taking accountability for the situation and learning from it.



Seys, D., Scott, S., Wu, A., Van Gerven, E., Vleugels, A., Euwema, M., … Vanhaecht, K. (2013). Supporting involved health care professionals (second victims) following an adverse health event: A literature review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50(5), 678–687.