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Non-specific or general CRP information

After Patient Ms. W received surgery on the wrong-site in her neck to relieve neck pain, she soon experienced adverse health effects, such as pain, distress, and lack of trust in healthcare providers. Ms. W’s experience illustrates the lack of communication between physicians and patients. The discrepancy is poor physician communication and refusal of apologizing for malpractice is due to fear of litigation. To improve patient-physician communication, health systems are encouraged to implement programs that encourage disclosure among healthcare professionals and trainees to improve overall healthcare quality.


The root causes of medical malpractice claims are deeper and closer to home than most in the medical community care to admit. The University of Michigan Health System’s experience suggests that a response by the medical community more directly aimed at what drives patients to call lawyers would effectively reduce claims, without compromising meritorious defenses. More importantly, honest assessments of medical care give rise to clinical improvements that reduce patient injuries. Using a true case example, this article compares the traditional approach to claims with what is being done at the University of Michigan. The case example illustrates how an honest, principle-driven approach to claims is better for all those involved—the patient, the healthcare providers, the institution, future patients, and even the lawyers.


Institution/Organization/Business
Reference to primary CRP related organization (e.g. CAI website)
Web resource/Digital Article
General website that contains CRP related information, may be non-specific or general or mixed resources on a website. Article published on-line. Not available as paper version.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is the lead Federal agency charged with improving the safety and quality of America’s health care system. AHRQ develops the knowledge, tools, and data needed to improve the health care system and help Americans, health care professionals, and policymakers make informed health decisions.


Tool/Toolkit
CRP resource or tool (e.g. CANDOR)
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ): CANDOR Toolkit

The Communication and Optimal Resolution (CANDOR) process is used  by health care institutions and practitioners to respond in a timely, thorough, and just way when unexpected events cause patient harm. The CANDOR toolkit contains eight different modules, which contain PowerPoint slides with facilitator notes, tools, resources, or videos. Examples of modules include “Care for the Caregiver” and “Organizational Learning and Stability.” These modules focus on effective ways to reduce patient harm and increase overall healthcare quality and safety through family and patient engagement, as well as specific ways to decrease the risk of future adverse outcomes.


Learning Community
Resources associated with CAI Learning Community
Presentation/Webinar
Recorded webinars and presentations
Video
CRP related video, movie
APOLOGY AND DISCLOSURE GRAND ROUNDS — NWH

The Apology and Disclosure Grand Rounds NWH incorporates a video simulated error and a presentation about “When Things Go Wrong”. The presentation discusses disclosure coaching & peer support, the emotional impact of errors on clinicians, and principles for transparent & compassionate disclosure and apology.


Medical errors are associated with significant emotional, financial, physical and sociobehavioural impacts including reduced trust and willingness to seek healthcare. These impacts can last for years. The study sought to understand whether greater open communication is associated with reduced emotional impacts and decreased avoidance of doctors/facilities involved in the error.


Learning Community
Resources associated with CAI Learning Community
Presentation/Webinar
Recorded webinars and presentations
Tool/Toolkit
CRP resource or tool (e.g. CANDOR)
Video
CRP related video, movie
CAI Webinar: Large Scale Implementation of Communication and Resolution Programs

Large Scale Implementation of Communication and Resolution Programs

Presented by: Heather Gocke, M.S., RNC-OB, CPHRM, C-EFM

Webinar Date: January 29, 2020

Ms. Gocke introduces a comprehensive program and a holistic approach in reducing harm in healthcare through large scale implementation of CRP. In her presentation, she highlights the importance of disclosure and engagement, and she shares real-life challenges and secrets to success.

Learning Objectives:

  1. Outline the method used to engage member sites in culture transformation
  2. Learn  how culture measurement, survey data debriefs, and cognitive interviewing techniques are used to inform this body of work
  3. Introduce the five domains and components of BETA HEART

Learning Community
Resources associated with CAI Learning Community
Presentation/Webinar
Recorded webinars and presentations
Video
CRP related video, movie
CAI Webinar: Mitigating the Toll of Medical Errors on Clinicians

Mitigating the Toll of Medical Errors on Clinicians by Jo Shapiro, MD, FACS

Webinar Date: October 31, 2019

As a clinician, being involved in adverse events can have devastating emotional consequences. How we react to these events – as individuals, colleagues and organizations – has a major effect on our organizational culture of psychological safety, provider wellbeing, disclosure and reporting, and patient safety.  Dr. Shapiro’s presentation will detail these effects and address the unique role that frontline physicians can play in supporting one another after adverse events. She will describe the peer support program developed at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and adopted by dozens of healthcare organizations. She will describe the building blocks of a creating and sustaining a peer support program, including providing the participants with the rationale to bring to leadership in advocating for peer support program resources.

Learning Objectives:

  1. Identify the emotional impact of adverse events on clinicians
  2. Recognize the impact this has on a culture of psychological safety, provider wellbeing, disclosure and reporting, and patient safety.
  3. Provide a rationale to leadership for developing a peer support program
  4. Delineate the foundational aspects of a peer support program

 


Communication-and-resolution programs (CRPs) aim to increase disclosure, learning, and responsibility following adverse medical incidents. The authors of this article identify five obstacles that prevent CRPs from being successful: 1) public policy, 2) compensation for patients following medical errors, 3) application fidelity, 4) evidence of CRPs increasing patient safety, and 5) alignment of CRP methods with patient needs. To increase the success of CRPs, it is recommended that they should be coupled with CRP quality programs. Overall, health institutions are advised to implement these programs into their systems to promote transparency and patient and family engagement.


Learning Community
Resources associated with CAI Learning Community
Video
CRP related video, movie
CANDOR: Conversation with Family (Video)

The Communication and Optimal Resolution (CANDOR) process is a patient-centered approach used by health care institutions and practitioners to respond in a timely, thorough, and just way when unexpected patient harm events occur. It focuses on early disclosure of adverse events and a proactive method to achieving an amicable resolution for the patient/family and health care providers.

The video demonstrates an example of the care team’s disclosure meeting conversation with the affected family.


Journal Article
Published articles related to CRP
CANDOR: The Antidote to Deny and Defend? Richard C. Boothman

This article explains how healthcare providers and insurers were skeptical of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s Communication (AHQR) Communication and Optimal Resolution (CANDOR) toolkit, which is a guide for healthcare providers to use if there was patient injury. Healthcare providers and insurers are weary of the CANDOR toolkit, since it does not quickly fix litigation scandals. This toolkit also does not effectively identify patient safety risks. However, the CANDOR toolkit is an effective step for healthcare providers to take in being honest and transparent with their patients about any malpractice or increased risk of injury.


Book/Report
Reference to book or report
CASE FILES: Medical Ethics & Professionalism

Discerning complicated approach of ethics and professionalism in medicine can be difficult. It’s similarly challenging when clinicians have to navigate through clinical or relational situation and develop an understanding of ethical, legal and more issues.

The Case Files consist of carefully crafted cases designed to stimulate proper approach and decision-making process. Case 18 focuses on transparent and compassionate disclosure and apology, and recognizing emotional challenged clinicians may face after an adverse event.


The Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management published study of an “open” hospital system shows that a Collaboration Communication-and-Resolution Program (CRP) cut lawsuits by two-thirds and reduced legal expenses and the time needed to resolve claims. Due to this program’s success, physicians are encouraged to integrate CRPs into their health practices to increase overall patient health quality and safety.

 


The study was conducted gain a better understanding about the attitudes and experiences of breast cancer providers regarding communicating with patients about diagnostic error.

Highlights:

  1. Providers more willing to inform patients of a diagnostic error when they felt it would be helpful.
  2. Providers willing to inform patients of diagnostic error when feeling responsible for the error.
  3. Providers willing to inform patients of diagnostic error if less concerned about litigation.
  4. Providers more willing to inform patients of a diagnostic error when the patient asked directly.

 


Institution/Organization/Business
Reference to primary CRP related organization (e.g. CAI website)
Web resource/Digital Article
General website that contains CRP related information, may be non-specific or general or mixed resources on a website. Article published on-line. Not available as paper version.
Communication and Resolution Program Certification (Washington Patient Safety Coalition)

This is the website for the Washington Patient Safety Coalition’s (WPSC) Communication and Resolution Certification Program. When healthcare providers and organizations have utilized a CRP following an adverse event, they can apply for “CRP Certification.” A neutral group of patient safety experts and patient advocates has been convened to review responses to adverse events and certify whether the patient’s needs have been met, any individual or system-level inadequacies have been addressed, and learning has occurred. The certification process provides valuable feedback to healthcare organizations and demonstrates that they achieved all the essentials of a CRP.

The Washington Patient Safety Coalition is a program of the Foundation for Health Care Quality (The Foundation). The Foundation is a nonprofit organization dedicated to providing a trusted, independent, third party resource to all participants in the health care community – including patients, providers, payers, employers, government agencies, and public health professionals.


The Collaborative for Accountability and Improvement Program is currently based at the University of Washington. The goal of the Collaborative is to bring together leading experts to support the growth and spread of Communication and Resolution Programs (CRPs), advocate on behalf of these programs with a shared voice, and exchange ideas. CRPs drive quality improvement, enhance patient safety, and facilitate patient-centered accountability. This CRP (Communication and Resolution Program) brochure describes CRP Core Commitments, Key Steps in the CRP Process and Launching a CRP.

 

 


Videos from The Risk Authority, Stanford in partnership with Aon, Lockton UK, MedPro Group and SorryWorks!

Communication and Resolution Programs (CRPs) promise to reduce liability costs, promote a culture of safety and provide a vehicle for disclosure and healing between providers and patients after a medical error. Over the past decade, several CRPs have been pioneered and studied at leading medical centers.

In this live webcast event, we brought together three leading voices in the field – a health law scholar, a physician and a patient, to discuss:

Topics will include:

Have CRPs delievered on their promise?
What do the data show?
What best practices have emerged?
What challenges need to be overcome?
What resources are available to institutions interested in exploring or strengthening CRPs?


In communication-and-resolution programs (CRPs), health systems and liability insurers encourage the disclosure of unanticipated care outcomes to affected patients and proactively seek resolutions, including offering an apology, an explanation, and, where appropriate, reimbursement or compensation. Anecdotal reports from the University of Michigan Health System and other early adopters of CRPs suggest that these programs can substantially reduce liability costs and improve patient safety. In this study, CRP participants were interviewed. They identified several factors that contributed to their programs’ success, including the presence of a strong institutional champion and investing in building and marketing the program to skeptical clinicians.


Journal Article
Published articles related to CRP
Communication-and-resolution programs: The jury is still out

This article explains how communication-and-resolution programs (CRPs) are successful in decreasing litigation fees and compensation that results from patient harm. However, the success of CRPs depends on patient satisfaction, making it necessary for healthcare professionals to focus on factors that increase this. Even though there is little evidence to support the idea that CRPs reduce adverse medical events that result in patient harm, these programs do have the potential to do so.


Institution/Organization/Business
Reference to primary CRP related organization (e.g. CAI website)
Tool/Toolkit
CRP resource or tool (e.g. CANDOR)
COPIC Insurance: 3Rs Program – Recognize, Respond, and Resolve

COPIC is an insurance company that covers medical liability expenses. The company developed the 3Rs (Recognize, Respond, and Resolve) Program to prevent adverse events and increase patient safety. The goals of the 3Rs Program are 1) to maintain a healthy and professional relationship between the  physician and patient, 2) foster honest conversation, and 3) reimburse the patient for pertinent medical fees.

 

 


Book/Report
Reference to book or report
Organizational Policy
Organizational, institutional policy
Crisis Standards of Care

 

Crisis Standards of Care (CSC) was developed in 2009 by the Institute of Medicine in response to consecutive catastrophic disasters happening around the world. The report provides a framework for a systems approach to the development and implementation of CSC plan that should apply in disaster or crisis situations. It was designed to help state and local public health officials and health-sector agencies and institutions operationalize CSC.

Institute of Medicine; Board on Health Sciences Policy; Committee on Guidance for Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations; Dan Hanfling, Bruce M. Altevogt, Kristin Viswanathan, and Lawrence O. Gostin, Editors

 


Journal Article
Published articles related to CRP
Tool/Toolkit
CRP resource or tool (e.g. CANDOR)
Disclosure Coaching: An Ask-Tell-Ask Model to Support Clinicians in Disclosure Conversations

Despite the obvious need for open conversations with patients and their families following an adverse event, many organizations still lack the structure to support providers during this difficult time. In many cases, clinicians who have to disclose errors to patients and families fail due to lack of provider education and training, lack of confidence, fears of litigation and emotional distress.

The Ask-Tell-Ask Model focuses on successful disclosure coaching conversations. It includes:

  1. Case Scenario
  2. Key elements
  3. Practical step-by-step strategies for disclosure coaching
  4. Pedagogical model using the “Ask-Tell-Ask” approach
  5. Organizational considerations for establishing a coaching program

Learning Community
Resources associated with CAI Learning Community
Video
CRP related video, movie
DISCLOSURE TO FAMILY — WISDOM IN MEDICINE, PATH THROUGH ADVERSITY

A short video of Dr. Shapiro speaking on disclosure of medical error to patients and families. This video is part of “Choosing Wisdom: The Path Through Adversity” documentary.


Tool/Toolkit
CRP resource or tool (e.g. CANDOR)
Early Discussion & Resolution (EDR) Conversation Guidance

Early Discussion & Resolution (EDR) Conversation Guidance from Oregon Patient Safety Commission offers general guidance that can serve as a foundation in initiating conversations and follow ups.

An adverse event can gravely affect both patients and their families and providers. Having a conversation between healthcare providers and patients about the incident can bring resolution and closure.

Goals of EDR from Oregon Patient Safety Commission:

  1. Prevent an unfortunate situation from escalating
  2. Restore the keystone of healthcare—the provider-patient relationship
  3. Bring greater peace of mind to everyone
  4. Learn from events to improve patient safety

Journal Article
Published articles related to CRP
Error Disclosure and Apology in Radiology: The Case for Further Dialogue

Radiology’s leaders in peer review, patient-centered care, quality and safety, legal affairs, and institutional processes can help prepare radiologists to communicate openly with patients and families about errors by spearheading dialog within the profession regarding how best to implement this emerging practice standard.


Learning Community
Resources associated with CAI Learning Community
Video
CRP related video, movie
FDNH 3: Disclosure of Medical Error

The video includes three scenarios to demonstrate how different approaches to disclosure can have an effect on the course of communication with a patient’s loved one.

Disclosure Scenarios:

  1. Disclosure with No Apology
  2. Disclosure with Apology of Sympathy
  3. Disclosure with Apology or Responsibility

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) published the Communication and Optimal Resolution toolkit, which is a guide for the implementation of communication-and-resolution programs (CRPs). These are holistic and systematic methods for preventing and responding to adverse medical events involving patients. The toolkit also guides on how to promote sincere communication between patients, families and the healthcare team; appropriate financial compensation; and efficient ways to decrease future adverse medical events. The authors describe their personal experiences with applying CRPs in their medical practices in more than 200 hospitals. From their experiences, the authors describe the obstacles that prevented the success of CRP implementation, as well as how they overcame them.


Institution/Organization/Business
Reference to primary CRP related organization (e.g. CAI website)
Web resource/Digital Article
General website that contains CRP related information, may be non-specific or general or mixed resources on a website. Article published on-line. Not available as paper version.
Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) and the National Patient Safety Foundation (NPSF)

The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) and the National Patient Safety Foundation (NPSF) started collaborating together to utilize its combined resources and knowledge to further  patient safety efforts and create safety systems in various healthcare settings.


In an era of calls for greater transparency in health care, disclosure is often cited as a practice necessary to physician ethics and patient safety. The University of Michigan Health System (UMHS) experience demonstrates that disclosure with offer can be conducted—in a setting similar to many other centers in the United States—without exacerbating liability costs. UW Medicine hope that this study will encourage further disclosure efforts, as well as the detailed evaluation of their effects.

 


Institution/Organization/Business
Reference to primary CRP related organization (e.g. CAI website)
MACRMI

The Massachusetts Alliance for Communication and Resolution following Medical Injury (MACRMI) created the Communication, Apology, and Resolution (CARe) Approach. This strategy aims to further patient safety by fostering honest communication, apologies, and just compensation in adverse situations. MACRMI partners with patient advocacy organizations to to teach health insurers and hospitals about this strategy.