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The Communication and Resolution Program (CRP) Certification program is a promising example of collaboration among institutions, insurers, and regulators to promote patient‐centered accountability and learning following adverse events in the healthcare setting. These programs are successful, because they promote transparency among patients after an adverse health incident, and increase overall health quality.


Legislation/Regulation/Other legislative
Laws relating to CRP
Colorado Candor Act

Colorado Candor Act: ARTICLE 51 Communication and Resolution After an Adverse Health Care Incident (2019)


Institution/Organization/Business
Reference to primary CRP related organization (e.g. CAI website)
Web resource/Digital Article
General website that contains CRP related information, may be non-specific or general or mixed resources on a website. Article published on-line. Not available as paper version.
Communication and Resolution Program Certification (Washington Patient Safety Coalition)

This is the website for the Washington Patient Safety Coalition’s (WPSC) Communication and Resolution Certification Program. When healthcare providers and organizations have utilized a CRP following an adverse event, they can apply for “CRP Certification.” A neutral group of patient safety experts and patient advocates has been convened to review responses to adverse events and certify whether the patient’s needs have been met, any individual or system-level inadequacies have been addressed, and learning has occurred. The certification process provides valuable feedback to healthcare organizations and demonstrates that they achieved all the essentials of a CRP.

The Washington Patient Safety Coalition is a program of the Foundation for Health Care Quality (The Foundation). The Foundation is a nonprofit organization dedicated to providing a trusted, independent, third party resource to all participants in the health care community – including patients, providers, payers, employers, government agencies, and public health professionals.


The Collaborative for Accountability and Improvement Program is currently based at the University of Washington. The goal of the Collaborative is to bring together leading experts to support the growth and spread of Communication and Resolution Programs (CRPs), advocate on behalf of these programs with a shared voice, and exchange ideas. CRPs drive quality improvement, enhance patient safety, and facilitate patient-centered accountability. This CRP (Communication and Resolution Program) brochure describes CRP Core Commitments, Key Steps in the CRP Process and Launching a CRP.

 

 


Videos from The Risk Authority, Stanford in partnership with Aon, Lockton UK, MedPro Group and SorryWorks!

Communication and Resolution Programs (CRPs) promise to reduce liability costs, promote a culture of safety and provide a vehicle for disclosure and healing between providers and patients after a medical error. Over the past decade, several CRPs have been pioneered and studied at leading medical centers.

In this live webcast event, we brought together three leading voices in the field – a health law scholar, a physician and a patient, to discuss:

Topics will include:

Have CRPs delievered on their promise?
What do the data show?
What best practices have emerged?
What challenges need to be overcome?
What resources are available to institutions interested in exploring or strengthening CRPs?


In communication-and-resolution programs (CRPs), health systems and liability insurers encourage the disclosure of unanticipated care outcomes to affected patients and proactively seek resolutions, including offering an apology, an explanation, and, where appropriate, reimbursement or compensation. Anecdotal reports from the University of Michigan Health System and other early adopters of CRPs suggest that these programs can substantially reduce liability costs and improve patient safety. In this study, CRP participants were interviewed. They identified several factors that contributed to their programs’ success, including the presence of a strong institutional champion and investing in building and marketing the program to skeptical clinicians.


Journal Article
Published articles related to CRP
Communication-and-resolution programs: The jury is still out

This article explains how communication-and-resolution programs (CRPs) are successful in decreasing litigation fees and compensation that results from patient harm. However, the success of CRPs depends on patient satisfaction, making it necessary for healthcare professionals to focus on factors that increase this. Even though there is little evidence to support the idea that CRPs reduce adverse medical events that result in patient harm, these programs do have the potential to do so.


Case Study
Institution/Organization/Business
Reference to primary CRP related organization (e.g. CAI website)
Tool/Toolkit
CRP resource or tool (e.g. CANDOR)
Web resource/Digital Article
General website that contains CRP related information, may be non-specific or general or mixed resources on a website. Article published on-line. Not available as paper version.
Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP)

The Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) was created by Johns Hopkins University patient safety researchers and brought to the public domain through the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). CUSP aims to improve patient safety culture while providing front line caregivers with the tools and support that they need to tackle the hazards that threaten their patients. This program has been used to target a wide range of problems, such as patient falls, hospital-acquired infections, and medication administration errors.

The AHRQ toolkit includes training tools to make care safer by improving the foundation of how your physicians, nurses, and other clinical team members work together. It builds the capacity to address safety issues by combining clinical best practices and the science of safety.


Institution/Organization/Business
Reference to primary CRP related organization (e.g. CAI website)
Tool/Toolkit
CRP resource or tool (e.g. CANDOR)
COPIC Insurance: 3Rs Program – Recognize, Respond, and Resolve

COPIC is an insurance company that covers medical liability expenses. The company developed the 3Rs (Recognize, Respond, and Resolve) Program to prevent adverse events and increase patient safety. The goals of the 3Rs Program are 1) to maintain a healthy and professional relationship between the  physician and patient, 2) foster honest conversation, and 3) reimburse the patient for pertinent medical fees.

 

 


Journal Article
Published articles related to CRP
Disclosing Adverse Events to Patients: International Norms and Trends

Researchers reviewed patterns in healthcare policies and trends in five countries (the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and Canada) with histories of disclosing adverse incidents to patients. The researchers wanted to analyze the barriers that prevent healthcare providers and institutions from disclosing adverse events to their patients. They concluded that some barriers included difficulties with liability fees, patients’ beliefs on safety in the healthcare setting, and implementing policy changes on a large-scale. Effective ways to combat these challenges include carrying out a long-term program that involves educating patients and healthcare workers about safety.

 


This article dissects the meaning of “disclosure-and-resolution” programs, which call health organizations to disclose medical errors to patients and families involved; apologize; and offer compensation when necessary. Health systems that used approach found decreased litigation fees. Researchers analyzed surveys in which individuals used “disclosure-and-resolution programs where appropriate. They found that increasing compensation allowances following an adverse event did not improve results, nor did it decrease the likelihood of patients and families filing lawsuits following an adverse event. Thus, it is important for healthcare systems to remember that “disclosure-and-resolution” programs may help promote effective and honest communication between patients and families, but it does not decrease associated legal costs or the possibility of a lawsuit.


Journal Article
Published articles related to CRP
Effectiveness and efficiency of root cause analysis in medicine

Healthcare providers use root cause analysis to learn from malpractice and decrease the risk of adverse events. This method involves identifying the basic factors that cause performance variability. This model has three parts: 1) what occurred, 2) why did it occur, and 3) what strategies can be used to prevent the event from occurring in the future? This method is effective, because it helps healthcare providers identify the underlying causes of adverse events and take the necessary approaches to combat them.

 

 


Communication-and-resolution programs (CRPs) are implemented in hospitals to increase patient safety and effective communication between healthcare providers following patient injury. CRPs act as a guide for hospitals to disclose information to patients after medical injury, ways to efficiently investigate the incident, and how to take accountability for the event and offer compensation when appropriate. In this study, the authors analyzed the effectiveness of CRPs in reducing patient harm four Massachusetts health systems. The authors found that CRP implementation were correlated with decreased litigation fees, but they did not alter any other pertinent outcomes, such as reducing patient harm and increasing transparent communication.

 


Journal Article
Published articles related to CRP
Ernest Amory Codman MD: Hero of Patient safety and quality

Ernest Amory Codman MD (1869–1940) was a Boston surgeon who created a system in which he followed up with each of his patients years after hospitalization and recorded the end results of their care, including any errors in diagnoses and treatment. Dr. Codman then analyzed these errors and the correlation to patient health outcomes, and used them to make future improvements to not only increase patient safety but to excel as a healthcare provider.


The Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care and Patient Safety offers a detailed overview of ergonomics and and human factors, theories, methods, and models that are pertinent to patient care and safety. Specific topics included in this book include telemedicine, infection prevention, and anesthesia safety.

 


Two victims are involved in adverse incidents within health care. The first victim is the patient and family and the second is the health care provider. Researchers of this study focused on the effects of adverse events on healthcare professionals. They found that it is necessary to develop and implement support systems that can utilized by both patients, families, and healthcare providers when dealing with the effects of adverse incidents.

 


Journal Article
Published articles related to CRP
Hospital incident reporting systems do not capture most patient harm

The object of this report is 1) to describe how hospitals use incident reporting systems and incident reports, 2) to determine the extent to which hospital incident reporting systems capture patient harm that occurs within hospitals, and 3) to determine the extent to which accrediters review incident reporting systems when assessing hospital compliance with Federal requirements to track instances of patient harm.

 

 


Communication-and-resolution programs (CRPs) in health care organizations seek to identify medical injuries promptly; ensure that they are disclosed to patients compassionately; pursue timely resolution through patient engagement, explanation, and, where appropriate, apology and compensation; and use lessons learned to improve patient safety. To make these programs more successful, legal entities should support them. State and federal policy makers should try to allay potential defendants’ fears of litigation, facilitate patient participation, and address the economic concerns of health care providers.


The existing structures and processes that together form an organization’s operating system need an additional element to address the challenges produced by mounting complexity and rapid change. The solution is a second operating system, devoted to the design and implementation of strategy, that uses an agile, network-like structure and a very different set of processes. The new operating system continually assesses the business, the industry, and the organization, and reacts with greater agility, speed, and creativity than the existing one. It complements rather than overburdens the traditional hierarchy, thus freeing the latter to do what it’s optimized to do. It actually makes enterprises easier to run and accelerates strategic change. This is not an “either or” idea. It’s “both and.” I’m proposing two systems that operate in concert.

 

 


The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety (2012) created a toolkit to help health care organizations implement support programs for clinicians suffering from the emotional impact of errors and adverse events. Based on the best available evidence related to the second victim experience, the toolkit consists of 10 modules, each with a series of specific action steps, references, and exemplars.


Journal Article
Published articles related to CRP
Human error: models and management

The human error problem can be viewed in two ways: the person approach and the system approach. Each has its model of error causation and each model gives rise to quite different philosophies of error management. Understanding these differences has important practical implications for coping with the ever-present risk of mishaps in clinical practice.

 

 


The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) published the Communication and Optimal Resolution toolkit, which is a guide for the implementation of communication-and-resolution programs (CRPs). These are holistic and systematic methods for preventing and responding to adverse medical events involving patients. The toolkit also guides on how to promote sincere communication between patients, families and the healthcare team; appropriate financial compensation; and efficient ways to decrease future adverse medical events. The authors describe their personal experiences with applying CRPs in their medical practices in more than 200 hospitals. From their experiences, the authors describe the obstacles that prevented the success of CRP implementation, as well as how they overcame them.


The response to adverse events can lack patient-centered-ness, perhaps because the involved institutions and other stakeholders misunderstand what patients and families go through after care breakdowns. A PFAC-designed simulation can help stakeholders understand patient and family experiences following adverse events and potentially improve their response to these events.

 

 


Institution/Organization/Business
Reference to primary CRP related organization (e.g. CAI website)
Web resource/Digital Article
General website that contains CRP related information, may be non-specific or general or mixed resources on a website. Article published on-line. Not available as paper version.
Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) and the National Patient Safety Foundation (NPSF)

The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) and the National Patient Safety Foundation (NPSF) started collaborating together to utilize its combined resources and knowledge to further  patient safety efforts and create safety systems in various healthcare settings.


Institution/Organization/Business
Reference to primary CRP related organization (e.g. CAI website)
Institute for Patient and Family-Centered Care

The Institute for Patient- and Family-Centered Care (IPFCC), a non-profit organization founded in 1992, takes pride in providing essential leadership to advance the understanding and practice of patient- and family-centered care. By promoting collaborative, empowering relationships among patients, families, and health care professionals, IPFCC facilitates patient- and family-centered change in all settings where individuals and families receive care and support.

Read more here.


Legislation/Regulation/Other legislative
Laws relating to CRP
Iowa Candor Statute

Iowa’s Candor Statute – Iowa Code §135P (2017)


This article discusses that just culture is balance between holding organizations and individuals accountable for implementing safe practices and change in the workplace. This is especially important in healthcare settings to decrease patient mortality and increase patient safety. Benefits of fostering a just culture include increasing effective communication and innovation across various departments.


Sidney Dekker, PhD supervises the Safety Science Innovation Lab at Griffith University in Brisbane, Australia. In Dekker’s book, Just Culture: Restoring Trust and Accountability in Your Organization (3rd ed.), he discusses how to effectively create a just culture of accountability and responsibility. This includes learning strategies on how to appropriately approach adverse incidents such that knowledge is maximized and the negative effects are minimized.

 


Journal Article
Published articles related to CRP
Leading Change. Why Transformation Efforts Fail

John P. Kotter is renowned for his work on leading organizational change. In 1995, when this article was first published, he had just completed a ten-year study of more than 100 companies that attempted such a transformation. Here he shares the results of his observations, outlining the eight largest errors that can doom these efforts and explaining the general lessons that encourage success.

 

 


Communication-and-resolution programs (CRPs) are a systematic response to address adverse medical events, as well as to promote patient safety and healthcare quality. In this study, researchers analyzed the effectiveness of implementing the Communication and Optimal Resolution, a CRP, at MedStar Health, an American community health organization. Researchers found that this program was effective in increasing the number of incident reports, as well as decreased the number of adverse events associated with lawsuits.